While the camas gathering, racing, gambling, and playing were going on in the bright sunshine, the warriors, chiefs, and elders sat in a lodge and smoked and counseled: should they go onto the reservation or not? There was really no choice.

At the council with General Howard in May at Lapw,ai, the chiefs had agreed to move onto the reservation. What were their alternatives? Noncompliance would only bring the cavalry down on them. And the chiefs knew they stood no chance in prolonged combat with the U.S. Army. During the ten days at Tolo Lake, all the nuances, all the possibilities must have been heard and discussed.


Tolo Lake, a shallow lake covering about 35 acres, is the largest natural water body on the Camas Prairie.



The Nez Perce Flight to Canada - An Introduction

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