The authors are authorities in the field in which they are writing. Their academic credentials and professional or corporate afilliations are usually provided so that you can evaluation their qualifications. Research grants are also acknowledged and are important to note when evaluating an article's content because sponsorship may influence a researcher's perspective.
Purpose is to report on original research and provide in-depth information of a narrow topic. Review articles compile and discuss relevant research on a specific topic.
Scholarly articles are written for the specialized reader and contain formal and technical language as well as jargon.
Like the language, the layout of the article is also formal. An abstract heads the article, and the text contains section headings, sub-headings and a conclusion. Graphics such as charts, graphs and tables are used to explain or clairfy. There are limited or no advertisements, and those that are present relate to the specific area of study covered by the journals.
Reference is made to other relevant research and authors cite their sources in a bibliography at the end of the article. Facts and supporting documentation can be checked by the reader via the references.
Articles are often consecutively numbered from one issue to the next.